Selection Guideline for Polarization Maintaining Optical Circulator

There are very many passive components involved in fiber optical networks and an optical circulator is among the top options. These components help in signal delivery without any failure thus remain to be very important. When used, the optical circulator will direct the signals between different ports but maintaining a single direction. There will be no chances of the signal going in a different direction that was not intended.

Two-way situations apply

However, that does not make it a one-direction device only. There are rare situations where you can have the circulator used in a two-way situation. When there is an optical signal sent by the circulator in two different directions, the fiber is usually one. You will have the circulator fixed on the two ends of the fiber and will function by adding a signal in one end while removing from the opposite end.

Whenever you are choosing a Polarization Maintaining Optical Circulator to use, there are very many things that must be put into serious consideration. That will be the benchmark on which your choices will be based upon. Features must be one of the things that you look out for in an ideal optical circulator. The good thing is that such a circulator comes loaded with more features to make your experience remarkable.

Consider different applications

The circulator comes with two main high-power options to choose from. You can go for either 1550nm or 1064nm depending on your needs. The other standout features for Polarization Maintaining Optical Circulator include epoxy-free optical path and compact inline package. There are additional features that as well make the circulator a unique choice compared to other alternatives available.

The other thing to look at includes applications which play a key role in the functioning of an optical circulator. Main applications that you should pay attention to are bidirectional pumping, fiber sensors, add-drop multiplexing, bidirectional signal transmission systems as well as coupling inline chromatic dispersion compensation devices.

With these applications, you are sure that your circulator will give out an optimal performance. You can have a Polarization Maintaining Optical Circulator used in multiple optical settings thus it will offer you limitless options. That is because they are unidirectional and non-reciprocating while their availability as three-port makes the circulator even more suitable. Do you know that it’s possible to use optical circulators in communication systems that are more advanced? Well, that is yet another of their biggest advantage over other types of circulators.

Get optimal performance

That is made possible by the fact that optical circulators come with a very small insertion loss while their isolation levels are very high. When used in advanced systems of communication, the circulators will come as any of the common applications. The result you get from using Polarization Maintaining Optical Circulator will depend largely on how you have chosen to use it.  If you make your decision well, the result will be good but if not then you will get a different result. It will all depend on your choices.

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Data Bottleneck Solutions for your Business with Compact CWDM Mux and Demux

Communication networks are vulnerable to data congestion. This limits the end users from accessing certain links including mobile radio towers. The problem has led to management of dedicated links by a large number of wireless carriers through the optical fiber network connection.

Depending on the requirement standards the service provider is expected to comply, some even go to the extent of claiming additional dedicated strands which give access and core meshes to the mobile tower sites.  This trend depletes the number of available fiber strands denying new service providers access to mobile towers.

Thanks to the art of technology which has introduced data bottleneck solution to businesses. The compact CWDM multiplexer allows fiber capacity enhancement without the need to increase the number of fiber strands. This ensures easy communication and connectivity to mobile towers by giving quick access without bugs.

Features

  • High channel isolation
  • Mini size
  • High insertion loss
  • Epoxy-free optical path
  • Large bandwidth

Applications

  • Mobile phone applications
  • WDM network
  • Access network
  • Tele-communication
  • Fiber optic amplifier

How it works

Compact CWDM multiplexer works by either extracting or inaugurating several signals which are broadcasted through different fiber wavelengths to efficient create more different channels. A MUX conglomerates individual light channels to the fiber at the sending end of the data link.

 On arrival, a demultiplexer (DEMUX) applies a similar optical conformation in a reverse direction, propagating via the device. The DEMUX optical filter singles out the incoming wavelengths and pairs each channel separately with fiber. This increases the number of channels transmitted through the fiber.

As the demand for more subscribers continues to grow, the CWDM scales the supply of additional bandwidth by handling bottlenecks without substantial equipment modification. According to the IEEE standards. CWDM is compact and has the capability of withstanding outside plant (OSP) environmental conditions. This allows deployment of uncooled and unheated equipment and cabinets.

Advantages

Saves money

CWDM helps access network operators lower their costs by providing quality connections to their users without the need of investing on more fiber links.

High quality

Compact CWDM is designed using modern technology and complies with IEEE standards making service providers meet the global communication standards. Besides, the device has the capability of withstanding outside the plant environmental conditions giving providers favorable installation conditions.

Reduces data bugs

Networks are prone to bottlenecks. However, the device scales additional bandwidth without the need of substantial modification of the device. This ensures quick access to links despite the increase in the number of subscribers. This has enabled users to enjoy high-speed internet, telephony services, and on-demand videos without limited access.

Before making use of this new technology, access network operators must satisfy the following requirements.

  1. Bandwidth of up to 10Gps for each first-time backhaul link
  2. Facility to storing stable legacy fiber connections of between 15510nm or 1310nm
  3. Typical spans of up to 80km
  4. Uncomplicated operations which are reliable
  5. Wireless carrier segregation bandwidth
  6. Packaged and long-lasting environmental constraints for installation
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Learning the Different Coating Stripping Methods

The cladding power stripper also referred to as the multimode optical power stripper is designed for amplifier applications and high power fiber laser. It is an ideal device  for ASE, residual pump power stripping, core modes that have escaped from double cladding fibers inner cladding while ensuring preservation of single power minimal degradation and beam quality (M2). Single power that is reflected into the inner cladding may also be stripped out too.  The handling capability of the stripping power goes to 800W or at times may be even higher

Stripping the Coating

The fibers that most reputable companies supply all come with a standard  acrylate single layer coating or, in some such as the high power products, a coating that is high temperature enduring. In comparison to dual layer coatings, the coatings that are single layer are more brittle and smooth. The coating can be removed readily using the conventional tools for fiber stripping such as the Fitel S-210 Clauss or CFS-1 for 125 μm cladding diameter fiber or for larger cladding diameters the Clauss No Nik stripper is used. For fibers whose outer diameter is non-standard, it is recommended that an adjustable stripper is used.  Thermal strippers such as those that are attached to the Schleuniger FiberStrip 7030 or the Vytran FFS-2000 can be used for all fiber in a safe way.

Alternatively, chemical stripping of fibers can be done using an appropriate solvent. For example, the coating can be exposed for one minute to sulfuric acid at 120°C sulfuric acid. Before the fiber is dipped into the liquid, the tip should be sealed with a drop of glue of 2 mm in diameter or through the end fiber hole collapsing using a fusion splicer.  It is worth noting that most glue types are dissolved in this acid, but epoxies that are two-component such as the Epotek ND353 tends to dissolve in a slower manner than the coating.

It is also possible to obtain chemical stripping through application on the fiber tip, of paint stripper. The paint stripper is usually in the form of a gel so as to reduce the occurrence of out-gassing and can be applied easily using a small brush. After a minute or so, the coating becomes soft and is removed easily using a lens tissue. It is worth noting that paint stripper typically contains dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and as such there may be restrictions by local regulations to use it. For lower quality and faster stripping, another option would be to use a normal cigarette lighter to burn the coating off. However, the fiber may end up becoming brittle hence not the best choice for stripping.

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Know the Difference between CWDM and DWDM

A WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) is a system that uses a multiplexing (at the transmitter) and a demultiplexer (at the receiver) for the completion of the process and transmission of the signals.

The WDM is divided into three types (WDM, CWDM and DWDM) on the basis of wavelength difference among the three. The article discusses the main differences among CWDM and DWDM.

CWDM stands for Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing, and DWDM is the acronym for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Whether DWDM or CWDM, both are the types of WDM mechanism and have an array of differencess.

Let’s get acquainted with the chief difference between CWDM and DWDM:

  • The Coarse WDM has less than 8 active wavelengths per optical fiber whereas the DWDM has more than 8 active wavelengths per optical fiber.
  • The CWDM has lower capacity strength and hence is low in costs; conversely the DWDM possesses high capacity –this leads to an augmented price which is worth its qualities.
  • When it comes to the difference between the distance of the two, the CWDM has short range communication because the wavelength is not amplified, and DWDM has long range communication.
  • CWDM Mux and Demux systems are developed to be used in multiplexing multiple CWDM channels into one or two fibers.
  • Another major difference is that DWDM systems are made for longer haul transmittal, by keeping the wavelengths closely packed. Also, a DWDM device can transmit more data over long distances and to a significantly larger run of cable with lesser interference than a comparable CWDM system which has a shorter haul transmittal.
  • Furthermore, the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplying systems are capable to fit more than forty different data streams in the amount akin to that of fiber used for two data streams in a CWDM system.

Apart from all the difference there is one more and that is wavelength drift is possible in CWDM, but when it comes to the DWDM –precision lasers are needed to keep channels on the target.

Beyond being different from each other –these systems play different roles in the effective transfer of the signals, and thereby both are important enough.

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Know Wave Division Multiplexing & its Working

The world knows that the physical fiber optic cabling can be a lot expensive when it comes implementing for every service separately; but this expense can be made worthy by capacity expansion using a Wave Division Multiplexing also known as WDM.

Wave Division Multiplexing technology was evolved to expand aptitude of networks that a single fiber provides. It helps because a WDM system employs a multiplexer solution at the transmitter that combines several wavelengths in concert; also in this entire process, each carries sundry signal and at the receiver –a de-multiplexer helps in splitting them apart. Both Mux and Demux are passive and thereby require no power supply.

Types of WDM

Currently there are many kinds of standardized WDM in existence. The types / kinds of Wave Division Multiplexing are:

  • General WDM (that may include 980/1550 WDM and 1310/1550 WDM).
  • CWDM (such as CWDM Mux and Demux module and CWDM OADM module).
  • DWDM (including 50GHz, 100GHz, 200GHz DWDM mux/demux module and DWDM OADM module).

How WDM works?

The operating principle of WDM is easy and understandable. Wave Division Multiplexing is akin to the prism in the operating principle; as a prism separates white light into seven different colored rays, similarly a WDM system uses a multiplexer at the transmitter to join different signals together, and has a demultiplexer at the receiver end for splitting the signals apart. All you need is a right type of fiber optic cable, and it is possible to have a WDM device that can do both simultaneously, and can act as an optical add / drop multiplexer.

The first WDM systems (which were demonstrated with optical fiber in the early 80s) combined only two signals; however, modern systems can handle up to 160 signals. In short, WDM systems can expand the capacity of the network while accommodating many generations of technology development in optical infrastructure without having to revamp the backbone network; this quality plays in its popularity with telecommunications companies.

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Get Acquainted With Athermal AWG DWDM Module & its Astounding Applications

The element of a succession of high performance products that are based on the technology called silica-on-silicon planar and an exclusive athermal packaging design demanding zero software, electrical power, or temperature control for an entirely passive DWDM solution are referred to as Athermal Arrayed Waveguide Grating Dense Wavelength Division Mux/Demultiplexer which is also known as Athermal AWG DWDM Modules.

Athermal AWG DWDM Module

This range of modular products delivers an amalgamation of high channel isolation and very low loss along with longevity as well as reliability. Each module in the range is capable of performing Mux and Demux functions. With Flat top spectral response, both band devices are easily available (including L- and C- band). Apart from this, the custom frequency grids, connectorisation options and fiber type solution are also available. These functions make the modules ideal for several applications; some of them are discussed below:

Astounding Applications of an Athermal AWG DWDM Module:

  • WDM transmission: The WDM transmission is the process of transferring WDM, (the acronym for Wavelength Division Multiplexing) which is a method of combining multiple signals onlaser beams at different IRs (infrared wavelengths) –along the fiber optic media. With 100GHz Athermal AWG DWDM Module, the WDM transmission process becomes easy and effectual.
  • WDM based ADM: As Add / Drop Multiplexing is a multiplexing function that is employed in optical technology but can also be used in electric signal transmissions by using the principle of WDM transmission.
  • Metro and long haul networks: Metro networks and also long haul networks need to use Athermal AWG DWDM Module on wide basis. These modules offer the long haul networks with the ability to mail information, post news on bulletin boards, and logon at a remote site etc.
  • Optical Signal Processing: An Optical Signal Processing, shortened to OSP is the technology (process) that enables the processing of ocular signals in a way that the data content of such signals may be modified without converting the signals into the electrical domain. This whole process too requires 100GHz Athermal AWG DWDM Module for its efficient yet effective working.

Beyond all the listed applications of Athermal AWG DWDM, there are some more, one of which is ‘Wavelength selective routing’. The AWG DWDM is an ideal choice for all the mentioned applications because of its fetching features which encompass 100GHz ITU channel spacing, Low insertion loss, high stability and reliability etc. These features make the modules effective, durable and long term reliable.

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Introduction of Fiber Optic Coupler with its Benefits & Classification

A fiber optic coupler is an indispensable part of the world of electrical devices. Without these no signals would be transmitted or converted from inputs to outputs. This is the reason these are so important thereby this article discussed about these, introduction, classification and benefits in detail.

Fiber Optic Coupler is an optical cog that is capable of connecting single or multiple fiber ends in order to permit the broadcast of light waves in manifold paths. This optical device is also capable of coalescing two or more inputs into a single output while dividing a single input into two or more outputs. In comparison to a connector or a splice, the signals may be even more attenuated by FOC i.e. Fiber Optic Couplers; this is due to the division of input signal amongst the output ports.

Types of Fiber Optic Coupler

Fiber Optic Couplers are broadly classified into two, the active or passive devices. For the operation of active fiber coupler an external power source is required, conversely no power is needed when it comes to operate the passive fiber optic couplers.

Fiber Optic Couplers can be of different types for instance X couplers, PM Fiber Couplers, combiners, stars, splitters and trees etc. Let’s discuss the function of each of the type of the Fiber Optic Couplers:

Combiners: This type of Fiber Optic Coupler combines two signals and yields single output.

Splitters: These supply multiple (two) outputs by using the single optical signal. The splitters can be categorized into T couplers and Y couplers, with the former having an irregular power distribution and latter with equal power allocation.

Tree Couplers: The Tree couplers execute both the functions of combiners as well as splitters in just one device. This categorization is typically based upon the number of inputs and outputs ports. These are either single input with a multi-output or multi-input with a single output.

PM Coupler: This stands for Polarization Maintaining Fiber Coupler. It is a device which either coalesces the luminosity signals from two PM fibers into a one PM fiber, or splits the light rays from the input PM fiber into multiple output PM fibers. Its applications include PM fiber interferometers, signal monitoring in its systems, and also power sharing in polarization sensitive systems etc.

Star Coupler: The role of star coupler is to distribute power from the inputs to the outputs.

Benefits of Fiber Optical Couplers

There are several benefits of using fiber optic couplers. Such as:

  • Low excess loss,
  • High reliability,
  • High stability,
  • Dual operating window,
  • Low polarization dependent loss,
  • High directivity and Stumpy insertion loss.

The listed benefits of Fiber Optical Couplers make them ideal for many applications for instance community antenna networks, optical communication systems and fiber-to-home technology etc.

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Optical Fiber In-line Polarizer & its Fine Features

The significance and value of Optical fibers don’t need any explanations or specifications in the world of electronics and technology. These devices are no doubt the tiny part but are equally important as well as requisite for the effective / efficient working of the machinery and electronic. When we talk about optical fiber In-line polarizer these are the cogs which can never be overlooked.

In-line polarizer

In-line polarizer

Optical Fiber In-line Polarizer

Low cost optical fiber In-line polarizer is the device to convert unpolarized light into linearly polarized light. It encompasses both, input as well as output as one input of single mode fiber and one output with polarization maintaining fiber. It can easily be connected conveniently into the optical systems through pigtailed input / output connectors.

Now let’s discuss the fine features of In-line Polarizer:

  • Low insertion loss: in telecommunications, the loss of signal power coming from the insertion of a device into the optical fiber is generally referred to as insertion cost. The insertion cost of the In-line polarization is stumpy and quite lesser than the other similar devices.
  • High extinction ratio: the polarizer especially, the In-line polarizer usually have the high extinction ratio i.e. the ratio of the two optical power levels of a digital signal produced by an ocular source.
  • High return loss: The optical fiber polarizer generates high return loss i.e. the loss of power in the signal reflected / returned by a discontinuity in a broadcast line or ocular fiber.
  • Compactness and light weight: Yet another beneficial feature of an In-line Polarizer is that it is quite compact as well as light weighted. This helps in the placement and execution of the appliance. Its light weight helps it work easily and effortlessly.
  • High stability and reliability: In-line polarizer is always recommended as it is quite stable as well as reliable. Unlike all other types of polarizers, the in-line polarizer has higher stability. This is the reason why companies and industries trust these.

 Beyond all, the optical fiber In-line polarizer is available in market at low costs. There are several organizations which offer and sell the high quality optical fiber solutions at competitive prices and ensure you an effective as well as a durable working.

So, whenever you seek the high quality optical fiber In-line Polarizer, or decide to buy them, make sure you choose a copper-bottomed company to get the best products and high quality services as well as high class solutions at competitive prices!

The significance and value of Optical fibers don’t need any explanations or specifications in the world of electronics and technology. These devices are no doubt the tiny part but are equally important as well as requisite for the effective / efficient working of the machinery and electronic. When we talk about optical fiber In-line polarizer these are the cogs which can never be overlooked.

Optical Fiber In-line Polarizer

Low cost optical fiber In-line polarizer is the device to convert unpolarized light into linearly polarized light. It encompasses both, input as well as output as one input of single mode fiber and one output with polarization maintaining fiber. It can easily be connected conveniently into the optical systems through pigtailed input / output connectors.

Now let’s discuss the fine features of In-line Polarizer:

  • Low insertion loss: in telecommunications, the loss of signal power coming from the insertion of a device into the optical fiber is generally referred to as insertion cost. The insertion cost of the In-line polarization is stumpy and quite lesser than the other similar devices.
  • High extinction ratio: the polarizer especially, the In-line polarizer usually have the high extinction ratio i.e. the ratio of the two optical power levels of a digital signal produced by an ocular source.
  • High return loss: The optical fiber polarizer generates high return loss i.e. the loss of power in the signal reflected / returned by a discontinuity in a broadcast line or ocular fiber.
  • Compactness and light weight: Yet another beneficial feature of an In-line Polarizer is that it is quite compact as well as light weighted. This helps in the placement and execution of the appliance. Its light weight helps it work easily and effortlessly.
  • High stability and reliability: In-line polarizer is always recommended as it is quite stable as well as reliable. Unlike all other types of polarizers, the in-line polarizer has higher stability. This is the reason why companies and industries trust these.

 Beyond all, the optical fiber In-line polarizer is available in market at low costs. There are several organizations which offer and sell the high quality optical fiber solutions at competitive prices and ensure you an effective as well as a durable working.

So, whenever you seek the high quality optical fiber In-line Polarizer, or decide to buy them, make sure you choose a copper-bottomed company to get the best products and high quality services as well as high class solutions at competitive prices!

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Profitability of the Optical Component Business Improved Last Year and It May Set a New Record in 2016

The average profitability of optical passive component and module suppliers was very close to zero over the last 5 years, despite strong demand for optics. Compared to every other level of the industry supply chain, profitability of the optical component manufacturers was the lowest by far.

Financial reports of several suppliers of optics started to show signs of improvement over the last 2-3 quarters. The average profitability of optical component and module vendors was 2% in 2015, compared to a loss of 1% in 2014. There is a good chance for reaching 5-7% profitability in 2016-2017 and setting a new record. The highest profitability achieved so far was 5.5% in 2010, preceded by more than ten years of heavy losses.

Net profit margins in the optical components value chain

May 25, 2016 News_Release_Profitability of the Optical Component Business Improved Last Year and It May Set a New Record in 2016

Source: Public financial reports

Several component vendors restructured their businesses in 2013-2014 and these efforts are starting to pay off now. Accelink, Applied Optoelectronics, Coadna, Neophotonics and Oclaro reported significant improvements in financial performance. Acacia joined the list of publicly traded vendors recently and holds the record with a 17% net margin for 2015. Finisar’s profits started to improve in the second half of 2015 and we expect this trend to continue.

However, the average profitability is likely to stay in the single digits for a while. This industry is very competitive and it is likely to remain so for the next several years. Demanding customers, shorter product lifecycles and investments required to support development of new products are a heavy burden for suppliers. There are close to 40 vendors in the race to offer 100GbE optics to the cloud companies building mega-datacenters. Not many of these vendors will be successful in the long term, but they will continue to put pressure on the profitability of larger publicly traded companies in the industry.

Many start-up companies, betting their future on supplying high-speed optics to cloud vendors, develop products based on silicon photonics and expect that this new technology will give them a sustainable cost advantage. LightCounting’s report on Integrated Optical Devices offers detailed analysis of the opportunities for silicon photonics technology, and recognizes the potential advantages of this technology. However, we expect that a majority of high-speed Ethernet optics used in mega-datacenters will still be based on more established InP and GaAs based optics even in 2021.

Despite all the risks, developing new manufacturing technologies offers a path to sustainable competitive advantage and long-term profitability. Silicon photonics holds a promise for being such a technology. High-valued acquisitions of silicon photonics companies and the recent IPO of Acacia offered much needed success stories for investors. However, the risk remains high. Many other vendors, starting just to ship silicon photonics based products now, will have to prove themselves in 2016-2018.

DK Photonics – www.dkphotonics.com  specializes in designing and manufacturing of high quality optical passive components mainly for telecommunication, fiber sensor and fiber laser applications,such as 1064nm High Power Isolator,1064nm Components, PM Components, (2+1)x1 Pump Combiner,Pump Laser Protector,Mini-size CWDM,100GHz DWDM,Optical Circulator,PM Circulator,PM Isolator,Fused Coupler,Mini Size Fused WDM.

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DK Photonics now can write Fiber Bragg Gratings for fiber lasers on demand

Fiber Bragg Gratings for fiber laser

Laser Mirror Gratings

China, 21th July, 2016: Optical passive components available at DK Photonics are significant in a number of industries such as telecommunication applications, fiber laser, etc. In order to better give our fiber laser customers to do matching service, DK Photonics work with a Chinese optical research institute, after more than half a year’s efforts, and finally produced the FBG Mirrors used for fiber laser.

FBG Mirrors are based on the reflective properties of the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) written in the core of an optical fiber waveguide. FBG mirrors’ principal application is to use a high and low reflector to form a stable laser cavity having the lasing wavelength selected by the low reflector.

Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a distributed reflector constructed in an optical fiber short segment that allows reflecting particular wavelengths and transmitting the rest of them. The periodic variation of the fiber core refractive index generates a wavelength-specific dielectric mirror, which allows reflecting specific wavelengths. FBG can be used as a high reflector (HR) and output coupler (OC) to make a laser cavity in a fiber laser. Rare earth doped optical fiber increases the laser gain. The major advantage of all-fiber systems where free space mirrors are replaced with a pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG’s) is that the realignment process is no longer needed for the entire system functioning period, since FBG is spliced directly to the doped finer and never needs adjusting.

DK Photonics can provide varied wavelengths FBG, such as 1018nm, 1053nm, 1064nm, 1080nm, 1550nm, 1950nm, 2020nm, 2040nm; and can write in all common passive optical fibers, such as 6/125DCF,10/125DCF,15/130DCF,20/125DCF,25/250DCF,30/250DCF,20/400DC Fiber, PM or non-PM types are available. The Max. handling power up to 1000W. The following is main parameter or our FBG:

Parameters Values
Center Wavelength(nm) 1018nm, 1053nm, 1064nm, 1080nm, 1550nm, 1950nm, 2020nm, 2040nm
Wavelength accuracy 0.2nm
High Re­ector / Output Coupler HR OC
Reflectivity ≥99% 3%~20%
Bandwidth 1~3nm 0.2~1nm
Fiber Type 10/125 DCF,15/130DCF, 20/125 DCF,25/250 DCF,30/250 DCF,20/400 DC Fiber, PM or non-PM types are available
Power Handling(core) 20W, 50W, 100W, 500W,1000W.

Applications

FBGs offer multiple applications. It can replace conventional dielectric mirrors to provide optical feedback. It can be also used to create a multi-wavelength Raman fiber laser.

Fiber lasers offer a compact, electrically efficient alternative to Ar-Kr and Nd:YAG technologies. The FBG can be applied to fiber lasers of any type:

  • Single frequency fiber lasers;
  • Raman fiber laser;
  • Fixed frequency visible wavelength lasers;
  • Tunable frequency visible wavelength lasers;
  • Ytterbium doped fiber lasers;
  • Q-switched fiber lasers;
  • Pulsed fiber lasers;
  • Stabilized multi-mode emission sources;
  • Fine optical fiber responder, etc.

To obtain more information about the products, visit http://www.dkphotonics.com/.

About DK Photonics

The DK Photonics claims that they even provide customized solutions to their patrons. Those industries who wish their products to be distinctive can contact them for the same. The team mentions that they have passed the ISO9001 quality tests and hence, there is no compromise in this aspect.

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